TILAPIA MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION
Filed Under: Health & Science, Media & Tech | Posted: 10/27/2007 at 5:46PM
Comments | Region: Philippines
Ferdinand Ganotice, Jovita Saguibo, Manuel Bilagot
Edited by Marciano Paroy Jr.
This study was conducted to determine the rates of feeding on the growth and yield of tilapia under the prevailing climatic condition of Kalinga province. The research was conducted from June, 2005 to October, 2005. It was laid out using the complete randomized design.
There were no significant differences observed among the rates of feeding used on the total body weight of tilapia, average body length of tilapia and average body height of tilapia.
Based on the results of the study, any of the rates of feeding could be utilized for the growth and yield of tilapia since it gave a comparable result among the 3 treatments used regardless of each level.
Tilapias are warm water fishes originating from Africa that are widely cultured as food crops in many areas of the Asia-Pacific Region. The Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus) was imported in 1972 for fresh water culture.
The Tilapia Farming Industry of the Philippines rapidly develops in the 80’s with the technologies (generated by National R & D Institutions) for breeding and growth out in fresh water pond and cages.
Fish culture in the Philippines is one of the major sources of income in the fresh water areas of the countries. Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) is one most widely cultured fresh water fish because of its wide acceptability to consumers. It is easy to culture, handle and resistant to disease.
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of feeding rate on the growth and yield of Tilapia.
1. To determine the best feeding rate of feeds.
2. To determine the best feeding rate on the growth and yield of tilapia.
3. To introduce additional farm business in the locality.
Backhoe equipment was used to construct and prepare the pond.
Draining and Drying
The experimental pond was drained and dried completely until the bottom cracks before stoking the fingerlings.
Soil samples from the experimental ponds were collected before stocking the fish this was brought at the Regional Soil Laboratory at Tuguegarao, Cagayan.
Lay-out of the Experimental Pond
The experimental pond was divided into three ponds. Each pond was subdivided into three equal cages.
The Complete Randomized Design was used in the study .The different treatments are as follows:
Treatment 1 (75% of the body weight)
Treatment 2 (50% of the body weight)
Treatment 3 (25% of the body weight)
Repairing gates and screens
All gates, pipes and screens were checked to prevent predators and pests from entering the pond system.
Pests and Competitor Control
Spraying the recommended amount of pesticide in the pond was done to allow the pesticide to disintegrate within 7-10 days before stocking the fingerlings.
Organic fertilizer (Chicken manure) and Inorganic fertilizer (16-20-0) were applied at several locations in the pond to prevent excessive absorption of dissolve oxygen during decomposition.
The fingerlings were purchased at Ryan’s Farm, Tabuk, Kalinga.
Time and Method of Stocking
Stocking fingerlings in the pond was done early morning or late afternoon before the fingerlings are released to ensure the temperature between the water in the plastic bags and the pond where these are to be stock.
The water must be free from toxic chemical contamination and unwanted predators or wild fishes.
Acquisition of Commercial Feeds
PMI brand of aqua feeds was purchased from HIGHLANDER Agricultural supply, Bulanao, Tabuk, Kalinga was used in the study.
The amount of feeds to be given per treatment was based on the recommended feeding rate per treatment. It was split, feeding one half of the total ration of the day in the morning preferably between 6:30-7:30 and the other half between 4:30-5:30 p.m.
Weeds were removed/controlled by using scythes and bolos.
As soon as the tilapia fish reached 120 days. Harvesting was done by lowering the water level and the fine mesh sieve to collect the fish.
The data gathered were as follows:
1. Total body weight of tilapia per treatment. Fish per treatment was weighed and recorded.
- Average body length of tilapia per treatment. The body length of tilapia was measured using vernier caliper.
- Average body height of tilapia per treatment. The body height was measured from the ten samples using vernier caliper.
All data gathered were organized and tabulated, statistically analyzed following the Complete Randomize Design. Least Significant Difference Test was used for the comparison of means.
IV. Discussion of Results
1. Total body weight per treatment. The total body weight of the experimental fish is shown in Table 1. The treatment means did not vary significantly as reflected by the analysis of variance. The treatment values ranged from 2717.20 grams to 2782.70 grams.
2. Average body length of tilapia per treatment. The analysis of variance on the average length of tilapia is presented in table 2. There was no significant difference among the treatment means Treatment 3 (25% of the weight) measured 13.98 cm. While Treatment 2 (50% of the weight) had an average length of 15.93 cm. and Treatment 1 (75% of the weight) had a mean of 14.35 cm. The no significant result among the commercial feeds may mean that for this particular characteristics, the length of tilapia tested do not really vary, i.e., stable
3. Average body height of tilapia per treatment. Table 3. shows the average height of tilapia per head. No significant differences were found among the treatment means in terms of body height. This means that regardless of the rates of feeding used, the height of fish was comparable. The average height of fish ranged from 7.50 cm. to 8.20 cm. respectively.
4. Computed yield per hectare. The projected yields of the three treatments as affected by rates of feeding are presented in Table 4. T1 produced 752.77 kilograms/ hectare, T2 with 772.22 kilograms, and T3 770.00 kilograms/hectare respectively.
Based on the result of the study, It is concluded that any rates of feeding could be given to tilapia.
It is also concluded that farmer-producers of tilapia in the locality especially in the lower part of the province readily accepted that raising tilapia in the pond is considered as an additional farm business, since the cost of the fish is high and it is really profitable. Besides, it solves the scarcity of tilapia supply in the locality.
Based on the results of the study, the following are recommended:
- T2 is highly recommended since it obtained the heaviest weight of tilapia per hectare as proven by the researcher. However, all treatments are also recommended.
- Application of organic fertilizer (chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (16-20-0) is also recommended as basal before stocking the fingerlings.
PROBLEMS MET AND RECOMMENDATION
With the duration of the first operation of the project , there were problems met such as the presence of snake fish.
- The researchers strongly recommend the conduct of Study
- Adoptability of different Tilapia breeds.
Balarin, J.D. (1982) The breeding strategies of tilapia – reproduction control in aqua culture.
FSBI Symposium in fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics, Plymouth, July 1982. 16p
Huet, M 1990 Textbook of fish culture – Breeding and Cultivation of fish. 435p.
Pillay, T.V>R> 1990 Aquaculture: Principles and practices. Fishing News Books.575p.